Nile Agreement 1959

Egyptian, Ethiopian and Sudanese leaders met in the Sudanese capital, Khartoum, on Monday 23 March 2015 to sign an agreement to resolve various problems arising from Ethiopia`s decision to establish a dam on the Blue Nile. The Khartoum Declaration, signed by the heads of state of the three countries, Abdel Fattah al-Sisi (Egypt), Omar al-Bashir (Sudan) and Halemariam Desalegn (Ethiopia), was described as a ”Nile Agreement” that contributes to the resolution of conflicts over the shared use of Nile waters. This view is misleading, however, because, as far as we know, the agreement deals only with the project of the Great Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERDP) of the Blue Nile and does not address the broader, always controversial issues of the common use of Nile waters among all the riparian states. The new agreement failed to resolve the dispute over the fair, fair and reasonable allocation and use of Nile waters. In 1999, the Nile rim states, with the exception of Eritrea, signed the Nile Basin Initiative (NIL) to improve cooperation in the development of ”common water resources in the Nile Basin.” Under the aegis of the NBI, the neighbouring countries have begun to develop what they see as a permanent legal and institutional framework for the management of the Nile basin. The Framework Cooperation Agreement (CFA), as the agreement is known, officially introduced the concept of equitable water allocation into discussions on Nile governance, as well as a complex concept called ”water security.” While Egypt is heavily dependent on the Nile, there are factors that can lead to conflicts over the distribution of the Nile`s water supply. Egypt, for example, has such a dependent agricultural economy. In addition, Egypt is already dependent on virtual water imports, a strategy that could lead Egypt to attempt future water conflicts. [4] Ethiopia`s water flows supply about 86 per cent of the Nile`s waters. Egypt has historically threatened Ethiopia and Tanzania to wage war on the Nile. Egypt army Somali separatist rebels in Ethiopia during and since the Somali invasion of Ethiopia in the 1970s.

[5] Over the years, the states concerned have concluded agreements and treaties to control conflicts. The agreement between Egypt and Sudan, which complemented the previous agreement, gave Egypt the right to 55.5 billion cubic meters of Nile water per year and Sudan 18.5 billion cubic meters per year. This agreement was signed between Egypt and Great Britain, which represented Uganda, Kenya, Tanganjika (now Tanzania) and Sudan. The document gave Cairo the right to veto higher projects on the Nile that would affect its share of water. These differences on the use of the Nile are not new and indeed have a long history, as these countries are heavily dependent on the waters of the Nile. In 1929, an agreement was reached between Egypt and Great Britain on the use of Nile waters – Britain represented its colonies in the Nile basin. [1] The Anglo-Egyptian Treaty dealt with many issues concerning the Nile and its tributaries. The fact that it has granted Egypt an annual allocation of 48 billion cubic metres of water and Sudan 4 billion cubic metres, on an estimated average annual yield of 84 billion cubic metres, is particularly important for the current debate.

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