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Us Ussr Agreement

In November 1972, Washington and Moscow agreed to follow a FOLLOW-up contract of SALT I. SALT II, signed in June 1979, which limited U.S. and Soviet nuclear forces to 2,250 delivery vehicles (defined as ICBM silo, SLBM or heavy bombers) and implemented a multitude of additional restrictions for deployed strategic nuclear forces. The agreement would have forced the Soviets to reduce their troops by about 270 delivery vehicles, but U.S. forces were below limits and could even have been increased. However, President Jimmy Carter asked the Senate not to consider SALT II after the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan in December 1979 for its advice and approval, and the treaty was not resumed. Washington and Moscow then pledged to abide by the terms of the agreement, although it did not enter into force. However, on May 26, 1986, President Ronald Reagan declared that future decisions on fundamental strategic forces would be based on the threat of Soviet forces and not on a ”defective SALT II treaty.” FIRST I Over the coming year, however, the situation has changed considerably for a number of reasons. Fear of nuclear proliferation has increased interest in a test ban, with France detonating its first weapon in 1960 and the People`s Republic of China about to successfully build its own atomic bomb. But it was the rapid escalation of the Cuban missile crisis in October 1962 that forced leaders in both the United States and the Soviet Union to pursue a more aggressive agreement that could help them avoid the devastating destruction that nuclear war would entail. Although the crisis kicked off an agreement, its conclusion was made possible by the decision to withdraw from the original idea of a comprehensive test ban agreement and work towards a more limited regime. Atmospheric and underground testing proved to be just as effective for scientific purposes, so there was no reason to insist that access to both types of tests remained possible. In recent negotiations, the inability to detect underground explosions and agree on inspection provisions to ensure that such explosions do not occur has become a problem that has prevented an agreement.

After the Soviet Union and the United States decided that underground testing would not be included in this first treaty, the two sides quickly reached terms on which they could agree. On May 24, 2002, Presidents George W. Bush and Vladimir Putin signed the Strategic Offensive Reduction Treaty (SORT), under which the United States and Russia reduced their strategic arsenals to 1,700-2,200 heads. The warhead border came into force and expired on the same day, December 31, 2012. Although the two sides have not agreed on specific counting rules, The Bush administration stated that the United States would reduce only warheads used on strategic active-duty delivery vehicles (i.e. ”operational” warheads) and would not count warheads removed from service and placed in warehouses or warheads on delivery vehicles that are obsolete or repaired. The limits of the agreement are similar to those provided for START III, but the contract did not require the destruction of delivery vehicles, as START I and II did, nor the destruction of warheads, as planned for START III. The treaty was approved by the Senate and Duma and came into force on 1 June 2003. SORT was replaced by New START on February 5, 2011.

New START Russia denies violating the agreement and has expressed its own concerns about Washington`s respect. Moscow has accused the United States of establishing an anti-missile launch system in Europe, which could also be used to fire cruise missiles, using targets for anti-missile tests similar to those of medium-range missiles banned under the CFI treaty, and manufacturing armed drones equivalent to cruise missiles launched on the ground.

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